Friday, June 28, 2013

Bee Pollen Antimicrobial Effects on Gastrointestinal Flora

The benefits of bee pollen are common knowledge - it contains 13 vitamins, 14 minerals and 15 amino acids and studies have found horses consuming bee pollen improved performance. This new study proves it also has antimicrobial properties on the gastrointestinal flora, which is vital news in light of ever-increasing antibiotic resistant bacteria ... 

The Effects of Bee Pollen Extracts on the Broiler Chicken's Gastrointestinal Microflora
Res VetSci, 2013 Aug; Vol 95(1):34-7

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bee pollen ethanolic extracts on the in vivo gastrointestinal tract microflora colonization of broiler chickens.

A completely randomized experiment based on six treatments (different concentrations of bee pollen - 0, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45gkg(-1) diet) was used during 7weeks. The highest count of faecal Enterococci was found in the experimental group with the addition of 15g of pollen (8.85±0.87log CFUg(-1)) per 1kg of feed mixture. The highest count of Lactobacilli was detected in the experimental group with 35g of pollen per 1kg of feed mixture and the highest number of the Enterobacteriaceae genera count was found in the control group (8.43±0.15log CFUg(-1)).

Moreover, the MALDI TOF MS Biotyper identified the following genera: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, as well as Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. fermentum and L. salivarius from the Lactobacilli group and Enterococcus avium, E. casseliflavus, E. cecorum, E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. gallinarum, E. hirae and E. malodoratus from the Enterococci group. Additionally, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of pollen against five bacteria species isolated from gastrointestinal tracts of chickens were tested.

The best antimicrobial effect of the pollen extract was detected against K. oxytoca.

Monday, June 17, 2013

Multiresistant Pathogens Inhibited by Numerous Honeys

All honey, if treated correctly, will express the same types of therapeutic activity. It's the heating and filtering of honey by large companies processing massive amounts that ruin the healthy enyzmes resident in it and weaken or destroy its healing qualities...

Differences in Composition of Honey Samples and Their Impact on the Antimicrobial Activities against Drug Multiresistant Bacteria and Pathogenic Fungi

Background and Aims
Antibiotic multiresistant microbes represent a challenging problem. Because honey has a potent antibacterial property, the antimicrobial effects of different honey samples against multiresistant pathogens and their compositions were investigated.

Five honey samples were used: Talah, Dhahian, Sumra-1, Sidr, and Sumra-2. Samples were analyzed to determine chemical composition such as fructose, glucose, sucrose, pH, total flavonoids, total phenolics, hydrogen peroxide concentration, minerals and trace elements. Antimicrobial activities of the samples against 17 (16 were multiresistant) human pathogenic bacteria and three types of fungi were studied. Specimens of the isolates were cultured into 10 mL of 10–100% (volume/volume) honey diluted in broth. Microbial growth was assessed on a solid plate media after 24 h and 72 h incubation.

The composition of honey samples varied considerably. Sumra 1 and 2 contained the highest level of flavonoids and phenolics and the lowest level of hydrogen peroxide, whereas Dhahian honey contained the highest level of hydrogen peroxide. Sixteen pathogens were antibiotic multiresistant. A single dose of each honey sample inhibited all the pathogens tested after 24 h and 72 h incubation. The most sensitive pathogens were Aspergillus nidulans, Salmonella typhimurum and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the effectiveness of honey samples, the most effective honey against bacteria was Talah and against fungi were Dhahian and Sumra-2.

Various honey samples collected from different geographical areas and plant origins showed almost similar antimicrobial activities against multiresistant pathogens despite considerable variation in their composition. Honey may represent an alternative candidate to be tested as part of management of drug multiresistant pathogens.

Tuesday, June 11, 2013

Research Confirms Effectiveness of Propolis

A great recap of modern research, advancing the role of this powerful protector from honey bees. Propolis is an important contribution to modern medicine...

Historical Aspects of Propolis Research in Modern Times

Propolis (bee glue) has been known for centuries. The ancient Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians were aware of the healing properties of propolis and made extensive use of it as a medicine. In the middle ages, propolis was not a very popular topic and its use in mainstream medicine disappeared. However, the knowledge of medicinal properties of propolis survived in traditional folk medicine. The interest in propolis returned in Europe together with the renaissance theory of ad fontes. It has only been in the last century that scientists have been able to prove that propolis is as active and important as our forefathers thought. Research on chemical composition of propolis started at the beginning of the twentieth century and was continued after WW II. Advances in chromatographic analytical methods enabled separation and extraction of several components from propolis. At least 180 different compounds have been identified so far. Its antibacterial, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anesthetic, and healing properties have been confirmed. Propolis has been effectively used in treatment of dermatological, laryngological, and gynecological problems, neurodegenerative diseases, in wound healing, and in treatment of burns and ulcers

Propolis is a natural product that has been known and used by man for centuries. It is mainly because man learnt relatively early to exploit the products of domesticated honeybee. Recorded use of propolis dates back to c. 300 BC and continues today in the form of home remedies, toothpastes, creams, ointments, drops, and dietary supplement. Its numerous properties have been appreciated for very long time. However, despite numerous studies conducted all over the world so far, the constitution of propolis remains largely unknown. It requires further research that may lead to new discoveries of its composition and possible applications.

Click here to download the complete PDF.

Monday, June 3, 2013

Propolis Exhibits Antibacterial, UV, Water Repellent Protection for Eco-Friendly Textiles

Finding propolis used outside of the body in an unorthodox manner as a "green solution" is innovative. The first study of its kind, discovered Propolis enables antibacterial, UV and water repellency in cotton textiles. Of course, Stradivari also used an innovative approach in protecting his precious violins with a coating of propolis...

Propolis Induced Antibacterial Activity and Other Technical Properties of Cotton Textiles
Int J BiolMacromol, 2013 May 8

Propolis is a gum gathered by honey bees from various plants; the honey bees use propolis to seal holes in their honey combs, smooth out the internal wall and protect the entrance against intruders. It is composed of 50% resin (flavonoids and related phenolic acid), 30% wax, 10% essential oils., 5% pollen and 5% various organic components. As a natural mixture, propolis is widely used in medicine and cosmetics and food. So far no attempts have been yet made to make use of propolis in the realm of textile finishing .

Current work presents the first systemic study targeted to build up a scientific basis for production of cotton textiles having antibacterial activity and other useful properties by making use of propolis as eco-friendly finish within the scope of green strategy.

Propolis extract solution (70/30 ethanol/water) of 10% concentration was prepared as the stock. Different amounts of the latter were used along with a crosslinking agent and catalyst for treatment of cotton fabrics as per pad-dry-cure technique. Antibacterial activity of the so treated fabrics was obtained through monitoring the efficiency of the interaction of propolis with cotton cellulose. This interaction was expressed as inhibition zone diameter after the treated fabrics were exposed to (G +ve) and (G-ve) bacteria .

Other properties include crease recovery, tensile strength and elongation at break. Factors affecting these properties such as type, nature and concentration of the crosslinking agent, concentration, of propolis, and conditions of curing were investigated. In addition characterization of the propolis containing modified cotton fabrics including demonstration of the antibacterial activity, SEM, FTIR, durability to washing, UV protection and water repellency were performed.

Based on results obtained, it is concluded that application of propolis along with glyoxal and Al2(SO4)3 catalyst using pad-dry (3min./80°C), cure(5/140°C) bring about cotton textile with superior antibacterial activity, water repellent and ease of care characteristics as well as UV Protection. Tentative mechanism of the reaction of propolis with cotton in presence of glyoxal was also reported.