Monday, December 31, 2012

Royal Jelly Improves Memory, Hope for Alzheimer Victims

Royal Jelly is frequently referred to as a "Brain Booster" and this study takes it another step further by demonstrating improved memory and spatial learning, significant relevance for Alzheimer sufferers. Another important finding is the use of freeze-dried Royal Jelly, which eliminates obstacles such as the bitter taste and inconvenience of consuming fresh Royal Jelly... 

Effect of Royal Jelly on Spatial Learning and Memory in Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease
Adv BiomedRes, 2012;1:26

It has been recently demonstrated that Royal jelly (RJ) has a beneficial role on neural functions. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with impairments of learning and memory. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the effect of RJ on spatial learning and memory in rats after intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (icv-STZ).

Rats were infused bilaterally with an icv injection of STZ, while sham rats received vehicle only. The rats were feed with RJ-contained food (3% w/w) (lyophilized RJ mixed with powdered regular food) or regular food for 10 days. Then spatial learning and memory was tested in the rats by Morris water maze test.

Results showed that in icv-STZ group latency and path length were increased as compared to sham group, also icv-STZ rats less remembered the target quadrant that previously the platform was located; however, these were protected significantly in STZ group that received RJ-containing food.

Sunday, December 30, 2012

Synergistic Effects of Honey and Propolis Against Drug Resistant Strains

In documentation worldwide, you find this is consistently true - products of the hive have greater effects when consumed together. It makes sense, especially when you understand that they also work well with herbal remedies...

Synergistic Effects of Honey and Propolis Toward Drug Multi-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Escherichia Coli and Candida Albicans Isolates in Single and Polymicrobial Cultures
Int J Med Sci, 2012;9

Propolis and honey are natural bee products with wide range of biological and medicinal properties. The study investigated antimicrobial activity of ethyl alcohol extraction of propolis collected from Saudi Arabia (EEPS) and from Egypt (EEPE), and their synergistic effect when used with honey. Single and polymicrobial cultures of antibiotic resistant human pathogens were tested.
Material and methods
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus),), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans (C.albicans) were cultured in 10-100% (v/v) honey diluted in broth, or 0.08-1.0% (weight/volume) EEPS and EEPE diluted in broth. Four types of polymicrobial cultures were prepared by culturing the isolates with each other in broth (control) and broth containing various concentrations of honey or propolis. Microbial growth was assessed on solid plate media after 24 h incubation.
EEPS and EEPE inhibited antibiotic resistant E.coli, and S.aureus, and C.albicans in single and polymicrobial cultures. S.aureus became more susceptible when it was cultured with E.coli or C.albicans or when all cultured together. C.albicans became more susceptible when it was cultured with S.aureus or with E.coli and S. aureus together. The presence of ethyl alcohol or honey potentiated antimicrobial effect of propolis toward entire microbes tested in single or polymicrobial cultures. EEPS had lower MIC toward E.coli and C.albicans than EEPE. When propolis was mixed with honey, EEPS showed lower MIC than EEPE. In addition, honey showed lower MIC toward entire microbes when mixed with EEPS than when it was mixed with EEPE.
1) propolis prevents the growth of the microorganisms in single and mixed microbial cultures, and has synergistic effect when used with honey or ethyl alcohol, 2) the antimicrobial property of propolis varies with geographical origin, and 3) this study will pave the way to isolate active ingredients from honey and propolis to be further tested individually or in combination against human resistant infections.

Saturday, November 24, 2012

Bee Venom Controls Allergic Asthma Response

As surprising as it may seem, bee venom has therapeutic value not only with this study using BV injections, but a new trend in Germany provides asthmatics the ability to inhale bee hive air. There individuals sit behind a beehive and via a tube, inhale air coming out of the beehive. They have identified minute doses of phenolic compounds found in honey, beeswax and propolis but this air also contains bee venom...

Bee Venom Ameliorates Ovalbumin Induced Allergic Asthma Via Modulating CD4(+)CD25(+) Regulatory T Cells in Mice
Cytokine, 2012 Oct 30

Asthma is a potentially life-threatening inflammatory disease of the lung characterized by the presence of large numbers of CD4(+) T cells. These cells produce the Th2 and Th17 cytokines that are thought to orchestrate the inflammation associated with asthma.
Bee venom (BV) has traditionally been used to relieve pain and to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent reports have suggested that BV might be an effective treatment for allergic diseases. However, there are still unanswered questions related to the efficacy of BV therapy in treating asthma and its therapeutic mechanism.

In this study, we evaluated whether BV could inhibit asthma and whether BV inhibition of asthma could be correlated with regulatory T cells (Treg) activity. We found that BV treatment increased Treg populations and suppressed the production of Th1, Th2 and Th17-related cytokines in an in vitro culture system, including IL2, IL4, and IL17. Interestingly, production of IL10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine secreted by Tregs, was significantly augmented by BV treatment. We next evaluated the effects of BV treatment on allergic asthma in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of allergic asthma. Cellular profiling of the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathologic analysis demonstrated that peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates were significantly lowered following BV treatment. BV also ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness, a hallmark symptom of asthma. In addition, IL4 and IL13 levels in the BAL fluid were decreased in the BV treated group.
Surprisingly, the beneficial effects of BV treatment on asthma were eradicated following Treg depletion by anti-CD25 antibody injection, suggesting that the major therapeutic targets of BV were Tregs.

These results indicate that BV efficiently diminishes bronchial inflammation in an OVA-induced allergic asthma murine model, and that this effect might correlate with Tregs, which play an important role in maintaining immune homeostasis and suppressing the function of other T cells to limit the immune response. These results also suggest that BV has potential therapeutic value for controlling allergic asthma responses.

Wednesday, October 31, 2012

Honey Prevents Paracetamol Liver Damage

This is really interesting, as propolis has already been found to have hepatoprotective capacities and now honey is found to have similar effects. Interestingly enough, this is what we already know - apitherapy products have a synergistic effect when consumed ensemble!

Potential Protective Effect of Honey Against Paracetamol-induced Hepatotoxicity

Paracetamol overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity that leads to liver failure in both humans and experimental animals. The present study investigates the protective effect of honey against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. We have used silymarin as a standard reference hepatoprotective drug.

Hepatoprotective activity was assessed by measuring biochemical parameters such as the liver function enzymes, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Equally, comparative effects of honey on oxidative stress biomarkers such as malondialdyhyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also evaluated in the rat liver homogenates.  We estimated the effect of honey on serum levels and hepatic content of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) because the initial event in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity has been shown to be a toxic-metabolic injury that leads to hepatocyte death, activation of the innate immune response and upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

Paracetamol caused marked liver damage as noted by significant increased activities of serum AST and ALT as well as the level of Il-1β. Paracetamol also resulted in a significant decrease in liver GSH content and GPx activity which paralleled an increase in Il-1β and MDA levels. Pretreatment with honey and silymarin prior to the administration of paracetamol significantly prevented the increase in the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers, and reduced both oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Histopathological evaluation of the livers also revealed that honey reduced the incidence of paracetamol-induced liver lesions.

Honey can be used as an effective hepatoprotective agent against paracetamol-induced liver damage.

Friday, October 26, 2012

Propolis Aids Patients with Peyronies Disease

Propolis has an amazing integral element biologically, in that it regulates or re-regulates on a cellular level, anomolies in the biological structure of humans, as well as animals. It's a protector on numerous levels and merits greater appreciation in the medical profession, albeit that complementary and alternative health care professionals are slowly discovering this natural protector...

Published in Rev Int Androl. 2012 Oct 

In several previously published articles, we have shown clinical improvement in Peyronie's disease (PD) with propolis. Among the properties of propolis, immunostabilization is that which hypothetically corresponds to these effects.

To analyze and determine the associations among PD, propolis, immunology and clinical improvement.

Material and methods:
We performed a prospective, paired clinical trial of 30 patients. A dose of 900 mg propolis daily was administered for 6 months. The variables studied were age, race, direction of the curvature, pain, size of the plaque (pre- and post-treatment), as measured by physical examination, ultrasound and angle of curvature; levels of IgA, IgG, IGm, C3, C4, rheumatoid factor and C-reactive protein, and the results of skin tests.

There was no predominant age, while 70% of the patients were white. The curvature was predominantly upwards (40%). Pain was present in 53.3%, and was more frequent when the curvature was upwards (8 of the 12 patients). The mean change in the degree of angulation (pre- vs. post- treatment) was 38.1º(pre-treatment) vs. 29.5º(post-treatment) (p < 0.001). The variation in the size of the plaque, expressed as the mean of each of the three dimensions was as follows: physical measurement (cm) (1.9×1.3×1.3 pre-treatment) vs. (1.5×1.1×1.1 post-treatment). 
The results of humoral immunological tests were as follows: C3 levels were low in the majority of the patients; C4 levels were within the normal range; C3 concentrations increased after treatment to within the normal range and levels increased after treatment in the remaining patients who had levels at the lower limit of normal before treatment. The results of cellular immunity tests (IGg, IGm, IGa and C4) showed that before treatment 18 patients were immunodepressed, two showed moderate immunodepression and 10 showed normal cellular immune function (33.3%). After treatment, only one patient was immunodepressed.

On evaluating the main variables, we found that the angle of the penis after 6 months of treatment with propolis was significantly reduced. The size of the plaque measured physically by the physician and sonographically by the sonographer was also reduced at the end of the treatment. In patients who were immunodepressed before treatment, immune function returned to normal to a greater or lesser extent. Patients with low values before treatment showed improved immune function after treatment.

There is an association between immunodepression and PD. The clinical improvement in patients with PD treated with propolis was associated with improved immune function. Propolis reduces the angle of penile curvature and the size of the plaque and improves immune function.

Saturday, October 20, 2012

Root Canal Disinfection Possible with Propolis

The consistent findings in studies regarding propolis is that it works incredibly well in the mucous linings of the body. Not just in the mouth, throat and lungs, but also the intestinal tract and vaginal cavity as well... 

Propolis: A New Alternative for Root Canal Disinfection
Iran Endod J, 2012 Summer

This study evaluated and compared colony forming units (CFUs) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of calcium hydroxide and propolis as intracanal medicaments.

Eighty human single-root and caries-free teeth were selected and divided into five groups. Crowns were removed. Root canals were then prepared in a step-back manner. The samples were then inoculated by Enterococcus (E.) faecalis and incubated for 21 days. Intracanal medications were applied including, calcium hydroxide (n=20), propolis (n=20), and ethanol (n=20). Two groups of 10 teeth were also used as the positive and negative controls. Microbiological sampling was performed utilizing a piezo-reamer drill after one week of incubation. The samples were plated and CFUs were counted after 48 hours. MICs of calcium hydroxide and propolis were measured by serial dilution and agar dilution methods, respectively. The statistical tests of ANOVA and Duncan post-hoc were used to compare different medications.

MICs and CFUs of propolis were dramatically less than calcium hydroxide. The difference between the groups was statistically significant.

Our results reveal that propolis is an effective antimicrobial intracanal agent

Sunday, October 14, 2012

Anti-Parasitic Effect of Propolis Prolongs Life

Once again, Propolis demonstrates its numerous qualities of protecting life of not only humans, but animals as well. Hopefully, there'll be a follow up to this study to determine what dose would be effective in vivo, since it's impossible to overdose on Propolis...

Susceptibility of Trypanosoma evansi to Propolis Extract in vitro and in Experimentally Infected Rats

Research in Veterinary Science, 2012, December, Volume 93

Current therapy of Trypanosoma evansi infections is not effective for the vast majority of animals with relapsing parasitemia and clinical signs. Recently, attention is being focused on the antiparasitic activity of propolis.
This study evaluated the susceptibility of T. evansi to propolis extract in vitro and in vivo.

A dose-dependent trypanocidal activity of propolis extract was observed in vitro. All trypomastigotes were killed 1 h after incubation with 10 μg mL−1 of the extract. In vivo, the concentrations of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg kg−1 administered orally for 10 consecutive days showed no curative effect, and the rats died from the disease. However, rats treated with the two highest concentrations of propolis extract showed higher longevity than the other groups.

Based on these data, we concluded that T. evansi is susceptible to propolis in vitro. Despite the lack of curative efficacy observed in vivo at the concentrations tested, the propolis extract can prolong life in rats infected with the protozoan.

Wednesday, October 10, 2012

No Risk of Heavy Metals in Bee Pollen

Mark another victory for honeybees to collect only the "good stuff". Like humans going to the market for fresh produce, honey bees are selective about what they collect, whether it be pollen or nectar or tree resin. Similarly, even after the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl, honey harvested in the area contained no radiation...

Study of the Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn Dynamics in Soil, Plants and Bee Pollen from the Region of Teresina (PI), Brazil
An AcadBras Cienc, 2012 Oct 4

The purpose of this study is to characterize native bee plants regarding their capacity to extract and accumulate trace elements from the soil and its consequences to the sanity of the produced pollen.

The trace elements Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in soil, plants and bee pollen from Teresina region (PI), Brazil, by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Considering the studied plant species, Cu and Pb metals presented in the highest levels in the roots of B. platypetala with 47.35 and 32.71 μg.mL-1 and H. suaveolens with 39.69 and 17.06 μg.mL-1, respectively, while in the aerial parts Mn and Zn metals presented the highest levels in S. verticillata with 199.18 and 85.73 μg.mL-1. In the pollen, the levels of Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn vary from 5.44 to 11.75 μg.mL-1; 34.31 to 85.75 μg.mL-1; 13.98 to 18.19 μg.mL-1 and 50.19 to 90.35 μg.mL-1, respectively.

These results indicate that in the apicultural pasture the translocation (from soil to pollen) of Mn and Zn was more effective than in case of Cu and Pb, therefore, the bee pollen can be used as food supplement without causing risks to human health.

Monday, October 8, 2012

Bee Pollen Holds Nutritional Value Even After One Year

This is encouraging news for beekeepers and consumers on how best to protect the nutrional value of the B complex vitamins in this complete food. It's not suprising to see that, as with honey, its best to keep your bee products away from sunlight...

Presence and Stability of B Complex Vitamins in Bee Pollen Using Different Storage Conditions
Food ChemToxicol, 2012 Sep 25

This study has the objective of evaluating the stability of B complex vitamins and its vitamers, for a period of one year of storage. The pollen samples were stored under room temperature (with and without light) and frozen. 

The vitamins were quantified by HPLC with fluorescence detection. All proposed vitamins were found in the samples and the dehydration process didn't interfere in vitamin content. The variations were (dry basis): 0.59-1.09 mg/100g (B(1)); 1.73-2.56 (B(2)); 6.43-15.34 (PP) and 0.33-0.68 (B(6)).

After one year of storage, it can be stated that vitamin B(1) concentration remained constant, while for the others, the concentration loss was dependent on time rather than on storage conditions. 

All samples were considered Vitamin B(2) sources. The influence of the storage time in the concentrations of vitamin B6 and PP was explained mathematically, through linear regression equations of multivariate analysis.

Friday, October 5, 2012

Propolis - The Melanoma Assassin

Propolis possesses numerous bioflavonoids and Galangin is commonly found in Propolis from the Northern Hemisphere in areas with Poplar trees. Yet this anti-cancerous characteristic is consistently present with all Propolis, since there are other bioflavonoids which possess this capacity...

Galangin Induces B16F10 Melanoma Cell Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial Pathway and Sustained Activation of p38 MAPK
Cytotechnology, 2012 Sep 22

Galangin, an active flavonoid present at high concentration in Alpinia officinarum Hance and propolis, shows cytotoxicity towards several cancer cell lines, including melanoma. However, the specific cellular targets of galangin-induced cytotoxicity in melanoma are still unknown.

Here, we investigated the effects of galangin in B16F10 melanoma cells and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. Galangin significantly decreased cell viability of B16F10 cells, and also induced cell apoptosis shown by Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V-PI double staining flow cytometric assay.

Furthermore, upon galangin treatment, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential was observed by JC-1 staining. Western blotting analysis indicated that galangin activated apoptosis signaling cascades by cleavage of procaspase-9, procaspase-3 and PARP in B16F10 cells. Moreover, galangin significantly induced activation of phosphor-p38 MAPK in a time and dose dependent manner. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38, partially attenuated galangin-induced apoptosis in B16F10 cells.

Taken together, this work suggests that galangin has the potential to be a promising agent for melanoma treatment and may be further evaluated as a chemotherapeutic agent.

Monday, October 1, 2012

Royal Jelly Improves Mental Health, Glucose Tolerance, Red Blood Cells

If these results occurred in 6 months, imagine what Royal Jelly could do OR prevent from happening during a lifetime. After consuming Royal Jelly and Propolis continuously over the past 17 years, this beekeeper possesses a clean bill of health. Coincidence or chance?...

Effect of Royal Jelly Ingestion for Six Months on Healthy Volunteers
Nutritional Journal, 2012 Sep 21

Royal jelly is a widely ingested supplement for health, but its effects on humans are not well known. The objective was to evaluate the effects of long-term royal jelly ingestion on humans.
We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. A total of 61 healthy volunteers aged 42-83 years were enrolled and were randomly divided into a royal jelly group (n = 31) and a control group (n = 30). Three hundred mg of royal jelly (RJ) or a placebo in 100 ml liquid/day were ingested for 6 months. The primary outcomes were changes in anthropometric measurements and biochemical indexes from baseline to 6 months after intervention.
Thirty subjects in the RJ group and 26 in the control group were included in the analysis of endpoints. In an adjusted mean change of the variables from the baseline, significant differences between the two groups could be found in red blood cell counts (+0.16x106 /muL for the RJ group vs. -0.01x106 /muL for the control group, P = 0.0134), hematocrit (+0.9% vs. -0.8%, P = 0.0251), log (fasting plasma glucose) (+0.01 +/- 0.01 log mg/dL vs. +0.05 +/- 0.01 log mg/dL, P = 0.0297), log (insulinogenic index) (+0.25 vs. -0.13, P = 0.0319), log dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) (+0.08 log mug/dL vs. +0.20 log mug/dL, P = 0.0483), log testosterone (T) (+0.12 +/- 0.04 log ng/mL vs. -0.02 +/- 0.05 log ng/mL, P = 0.0416), log T/DHEA-S ratio (+0.05 +/- 0.05 vs. -0.23 +/- 0.59, P = 0.0015), and in one of the SF-36 subscale scores, mental health (MH) (+4 vs. -7, P = 0.0276).
Six-month ingestion of RJ in humans improved erythropoiesis, glucose tolerance and mental health. Acceleration of conversion from DHEA-S to T by RJ may have been observed among these favorable effects.

Friday, September 28, 2012

Is Honey Bad for Infants - Fiction or Reality?

This is a common reference for many and the author correctly puts this warning to question. Is there a deeper, underlying purpose to place fear into consumers' mind over such a naturally, healthy product as honey? Where is the proof ? It appears the verdict is inconclusive...


Dr.Theodore Cherbuliez, MD, President of the Apitherapy Commission of Apimondia

The Western medical world is practically unanimous on the question of giving honey to infants less than one year old: the answer is NO!

It is well known that the infant’s gut does not contain enough acid to handle safely the toxins emitted by the spores.

And now the published evidence found so far in the English medical literature is inconclusive. A few anecdotic accounts do exist pointing to the risk that the honey could have been the culprit.

The American Academy of Pediatrics advises that honey should not be added to food, water, or formula that is fed to infants younger than 12 months of age. This technically, applies even to honey in baked or processed food goods. The AAP statement says "Raw or unpasteurized honey (Infants younger than 12 months should avoid all sources of honey)". AAP Pediatric Nutrition Handbook.

Reasoning like the following are offered: Honey may contain botulism spores, which can lead to botulism poisoning. There are some areas of the country (United States) where the possible contamination of honey with botulism spores is higher due to the soil. Soil contains botulism spores/bacteria and the flora that bees use to feed on grows in that soil. [How the contamination of the flora happens is not described.] Also, disturbed soil containing the spores may directly settle upon hives for example - and thus the spores themselves could contaminate the honey as well...

From the Center for Disease Control. CDC, we learn that an average of 145 cases of botulism are reported yearly, 95 of them concern infants. The others come from infected wounds or accidental intake of the toxin. The overall number of death from botulism, (3 to 5% of 145), is about 6.

In addition to soil and house dust, the spore can be found on floors, carpet, and countertop, even after cleaning. The following foods are potential carriers: chopped garlic, herbs, canned cheese sauce, chile peppers, tomatoes, carrot juice, baked potatoes wrapped in tin foil and, for Alaskans, one can add to the list, fermented fish and aquatic game foods. Honey can also contain the bacteria. Hence the recommendation: no honey for infants.

The reason for singling honey out of the list, is not revealed... 

However, and this is less speculative, the Commission wants to either have the honey rehabilitated or have it scientifically evaluated as dangerous for the young population. The members of the Commission master some eight languages and cultures, and will allow an exploration beyond the reach of the already vast realm of the English language.

We will keep our readers informed of our progress. Any suggestions or comments will be addressed and responded to, if you send your message to Th. Cherbuliez, MD at

Thursday, September 20, 2012

Propolis Protects Immune System from Vaccine Side Effects

The use of propolis as an adjuvant has been used for many years in alternative medicine. But recent studies have proven it enhances the effects of chemotherapy drug treatment and continues to reveal its capacity as the "natural protector" and natural choice for enhancing one's immune system...

Adjuvanticity of Epimedium Polysaccharide-Propolis Flavone On Inactivated Vaccines Against AI and ND Virus
Int J BiolMacro, 2012 Aug 27

The purpose of this research was to compare the activities of different dose of epimedium flavone-propolis flavone adjuvant (EPA). The inactivated avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine contained three dose of EPA were prepared. 
In AI vaccine vaccination experiment, three hundred 14-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 6 groups and inoculated with three EPA-AI vaccines taking oil adjuvant (OA), non-adjuvant (NA) vaccines and physiological saline as controls, repeated at 28-day-old. The lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer were determined. 
In ND vaccine vaccination experiment, three hundred 14-day-old chickens were grouped, treated with three EPA-ND vaccines, and determined same to AI vaccine vaccination experiment, at 42-day-old the chickens were challenged with NDV. On day 15 after challenged, the immune protective effect was observed. 
The results showed that EPA could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance serum antibody titer against AI and ND, and reduce the morbidity of chickens challenged with NDV after vaccinated with ND vaccine, especially the effect of medium dose was better than that of non-adjuvant and oil adjuvant. 
These results indicated that EPA could enhance the immune effect of inactivated AI vaccine and ND vaccine and would be expected as a new-type adjuvant

Monday, September 17, 2012

Propolis Stops Growth of Candida, Fungi and Yeasts

The antifungal properties of propolis are consistently present in all forms of propolis collected throughout the world. It's not surprising, as the beehive is a dark, damp, humid enclosure that cannot tolerate mold and fungi. That's why bees use it throughout the hive.

Yeasts as Important Agents of Onychomycosis: In Vitro Activity of Propolis Against Yeasts Isolated from Patients with Nail Infection

The purposes of this study were to determine the frequency of the yeast species obtained from patients with clinical features of onychomycosis and the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of the yeast species to propolis.

A prospective study was carried out at the Mycology Research Center in Iran from 2010 to 2011. Clinical diagnosis was performed by direct microscopic examination and culture. Different yeast species were identified by morphological and biochemical tests. An antifungal susceptibility test to fluconazole (FLU) and propolis by the broth microdilution method was performed on each isolate.

One hundred and twenty-eight fungal isolates were obtained. The most prevalent fungi were yeasts (81, 63.2%), dermatophytes (36, 28.1%), and nondermatophyte fungi (11, 8.6%). Fingernails were more affected than toenails (65.4% vs. 19.8%, respectively). The most frequently found species was Candida albicans (38.5%), followed by Candida spp. (23.1%), C. tropicalis (10.8%), C. kefyr (6.2%), C. krusei (3.1%), Malassezia globosa (4.6%), M. slooffiae (4.6%), and M. pachydermatis (1.5%). Of all yeast isolates (65), seven showed resistance to FLU. The average MIC of propolis for FLU-susceptible isolates was 5.8 μg/mL, whereas this value was 12.25 μg/mL for FLU-resistant isolates.

Our results proved that the propolis inhibits the growth of pathogenic yeasts and confirmed the efficiency of propolis as an anti-Candida and anti-Malassezia agent. 

Thursday, September 13, 2012

5th Annual Romanian Apitherapy Congress Sept 21-23

Romania is one of the most open and advanced countries enabling physicians access without scrutiny to include alternative and complementary therapeutic protocols. It's very encouraging to interact with pharmacists, physicians, nurses, beekeepers and therapists...

The 5th Romanian Apitherapy Congress
Cluj-Napoca, Romania, September 21 to 23 

The theme of the Congress is “Apitherapy in the Clinical Practice". The congress is also open to participants from outside Romania and will be held in English and Romanian.

For more information: 

Event date: Friday, September 21, 2012 to Sunday, September 23, 2012
Country: Romania
Contact email:
Contact name: Dr Stefan Stangaciu

Wednesday, September 12, 2012

Propolis Effective Against Gum Disease

Minimize visits to the dentist and start using propolis toothpaste everyday. If surgery is required, use propolis extract to heal the wounds faster. This has been validated through personal experience. Click on article link for a copy of the propolis extract formula used...  

Honeybee Propolis Extract in Periodontal Treatment: A Clinical and Microbiological Study of Propolis in Periodontal Treatment
Indian JDent Res, 2012 Mar. 23
This study was conducted to evaluate by clinical and microbiological parameters the effect of subgingival irrigation with propolis extract. 
Materials and Methods: 
Twenty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, each presenting three non-adjacent teeth with deep pockets, were selected. Subgingival plaque sampling and clinical recording (at baseline) and scaling and root planing was performed. Two weeks later the selected periodontal sites were submitted to one of the following treatments: Irrigation with a hydroalcoholic solution of propolis extract twice a week for 2 weeks (group A); irrigation with a placebo twice a week for 2 weeks (group B); or no additional treatment (group C). Clinical and microbiological data was collected at baseline and after 4, 6, and 8 weeks.
A decrease in the total viable counts of anaerobic bacteria (P=.007), an increase in the proportion of sites with low levels (≤10 5 cfu/mL) of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P=.044), and an increase in the number of sites negative for bleeding on probing was observed in group A sites as compared to group B and C sites.
Subgingival irrigation with propolis extract as an adjuvant to periodontal treatment was more effective than scaling and root planing as assessed by clinical and microbiological parameters.

Tuesday, September 4, 2012

Royal Jelly Antimicrobial Properties Reduce Dental Plaque

Products of the beehive all possess antimicrobial properties but this is great news for individuals with bacterial infections in the mouth or even for holistic dentists who wish to reduce the use of antibiotics that destroy the oral flora. In fact, an ideal  mixture would include fresh royal jelly and a propolis extract to effectively destroy bacteria...

Hydroxy decenoic acid Down Regulates gtfB and gtfC Expression and Prevents Streptococcus mutans Adherence to the Cell Surfaces

10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid is the most active and unique component to the royal jelly that has antimicrobial properties.
Streptococcus mutans is associated with pathogenesis of oral cavity, gingivoperiodontal diseases and bacteremia following dental manipulations. In the oral cavity, S. mutans colonize the soft tissues including tongue, palate, and buccal mucosa. When considering the role of supragingival dental plaque in caries, the proportion of acid producing bacteria (particularly S. mutans), has direct relevance to the pathogenicity of the plaque.

The genes that encode glucosyltransferases (gtfs) especially gtfB and gtfC are important in S. mutans colonization and pathogenesis. This study investigated the hydroxy-decenoic acid (HDA) effects on gtfB and gtfC expression and S. mutans adherence to cells surfaces.

Streptococcus mutans was treated by different concentrations of HPLC purified HDA supplied by Iran Beekeeping and Veterinary Association. Real time RT-PCR and western blot assays were conducted to evaluate gtfB and gtfC genes transcription and translation before and after HDA treatment. The bacterial attachment to the cell surfaces was evaluated microscopically.

500 mug ml-1 of HDA inhibited gtfB and gtfC mRNA transcription and its expression. The same concentration of HDA decreased 60% the adherence of S. mutans to the surface of P19 cells.

Hydroxy-decenoic acid prevents gtfB and gtfC expression efficiently in the bactericide sub-concentrations and it could effectively reduce S. mutans adherence to the cell surfaces. In the future, therapeutic approaches to affecting S. mutans could be selective and it's not necessary to put down the oral flora completely.

Friday, August 31, 2012

Propolis Protects Liver and Kidneys

Researchers consistently find propolis to be an important protector for liver diseases and this again shows how it protects from the negative effects of medication. The best part is that taking a daily dose of propolis (250-500mg) has no negative effects on any aspect of human health...

Effect of Croatian Propolis on Diabetic Nephropathy and Liver Toxicity in Mice

In the present study, we examined the antioxidant effect of water soluble derivative of propolis (WSDP) and ethanolic (EEP) extract of propolis on renal and liver function in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. In addition, we examined whether different extract of propolis could prevent diabetic nephropathy and liver toxicity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation in vivo.
Diabetes was induced in Swiss albino mice with a single intravenous injection of alloxan (75 mg kg-1). Two days after alloxan injection, propolis preparations (50 mg kg-1 per day) were given intraperitoneally for 7 days in diabetic mice. Survival analysis and body weights as well as hematological and biochemical parameters were measured. The renal and liver oxidative stress marker malonaldehyde levels and histopathological changes were monitored in the liver and kidney of treated and control mice.
Administration of propolis to diabetic mice resulted in a significant increase of body weight, haematological and immunological parameters of blood as well as 100% survival of diabetic mice. Alloxan-injected mice showed a marked increase in oxidative stress in liver and kidney homogenate, as determined by lipid peroxidation. Histopathological observation of the liver sections of alloxan-induced diabetic mice showed several lesions including cellular vacuolization, cytoplasmic eosinophilia and lymphocyte infiltrations, but with individual variability.Treatment of diabetic mice with propolis extracts results in decreased number of vacuolized cells and degree of vacuolization; propolis treatment improve the impairment of fatty acid metabolism in diabetes. Renal histology showed corpuscular, tubular and interstitial changes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Test components did not improve renal histopathology in diabetic mice.
Propolis preparations are able to attenuate diabetic hepatorenal damage, probably through its anti-oxidative action and its detoxification proccess as well as the potential to minimize the deleterious effects of free radicals on tissue. The protective role of propolis against the ROS induced damages in diabetic mice gives a hope that they may have similar protective action in humans.

Wednesday, August 15, 2012

Honey Intensifies Antioxidant Effect of Black Tea

Two very important products of the beehive, honey and propolis, are consistently found to be complementary to everything - from antibiotics to radiation therapy. Is it any wonder that the antioxidants in honey only complement the antioxidant properties of lemon flavored black tea?

Potentiating Effects of Honey on Antioxidant Properties of Lemon-Flavoured Black Tea

Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use.

Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, a region with high amounts of this food product.

Data obtained showed that the use of honey (dark amber>amber>light amber) potentiates the antioxidant activity of lemon-flavoured black tea, increasing the reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties, as also the antioxidant contents such as phenolics, flavonoids and organic acids including ascorbic acid.

Friday, August 3, 2012

Propolis Effective in Mastitis Relief for Dairy Cattle

The antibacterial effects of propolis are more concentrated when used in an ethanol extract and should be incorporated into the cattle's treatment protocol. What's odd is that they didn't apply the EEP directly on the cows udder but chose to go "downstream" and treat the milk... 

Bactericidal Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis Against Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Mastitic Cows

Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen for both humans and animals, and it has been an ubiquitous etiological agent of bovine mastitis in dairy farms worldwide.
Elimination of S. aureus with classic antibiotics is difficult, and the current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) against S. aureus cultivated in complex media or milk. EEP (0-0.5 mg ml(-1)) decreased growth of S. aureus in BHI media and 1 mg ml(-1) was bactericidal against washed cell suspensions (10(7) CFU ml(-1)). Propolis extracts also killed S. aureus cells resuspended in milk, but the bactericidal dose was at least 20-fold greater. Cultures that were transferred for at least 60 generations with sub-lethal doses of propolis did not change much their sensibility to EEP. Atomic force microscopy images revealed changes in morphology and cell size of S. aureus cells exposed to EEP (0.5 mg ml(-1)).

Our results indicate that propolis extracts might be effective against mastitis-causing S. aureus strains in vivo, but milk constituents affect the inhibitory activity of propolis.

Considering that propolis-resistance appears to be a phenotype not easily selected, the use of EEP combined or not with other antimicrobial agents might be useful for mastitis control in vivo

Thursday, July 26, 2012

Honey - the Natural Cancer Vaccine?

By simply incorporating honey into your daily intake of consumable food, you could maintain a healthier lifestyle. Double the effects by including propolis into your diet for the synergistic complementary anti-cancer protection naturally provided by propolis. This may explain the exceptionally low cancer rate found among beekeepers. Click the link for the entire article...

Honey and Cancer: Sustainable Inverse Relationship Particularly for Developing Nations-A Review
Honey and cancer has a sustainable inverse relationship. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process and has multifactorial causes. Among these are low immune status, chronic infection, chronic inflammation, chronic non healing ulcers, obesity, and so forth.

There is now a sizeable evidence that honey is a natural immune booster, natural anti-inflammatory agent, natural antimicrobial agent, natural cancer "vaccine," and natural promoter for healing chronic ulcers and wounds.

Though honey has substances of which the most predominant is a mixture of sugars, which itself is thought to be carcinogenic, it is understandable that its beneficial effect as anticancer agent raises skeptics. The positive scientific evidence for anticancer properties of honey is growing. The mechanism on how honey has anticancer effect is an area of great interest. Among the mechanisms suggested are inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and cell-cycle arrest

Honey and cancer has sustainable inverse relationship in the setting of developing nations where resources for cancer prevention and treatment are limited...

Thursday, July 19, 2012

Royal Jelly, Bee Pollen Decrease Bone Loss from Osteoporosis

Since Royal Jelly is produced by honey bees when they eat pollen, it's not surprising to see both these products provide advantages. Bee Pollen is good food, containing all the amino acids necessary for humans, not to mention the full spectrum of vitamins, minerals and trace elements not usually found in foods... 

Royal Jelly and Bee Pollen Decrease Bone Loss Due to Osteoporosis in an Oophorectomized Rat Model

In this study, we aimed to investigate whether royal jelly and bee pollen reduce the bone loss due to osteoporosis in oophorectomized rat model.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty-two female Sprague-Dawley mature rats at six-month-old, weighing 180-260 g were used in the study. The rats were divided into four groups: Sham-operation group, only oophorectomy group, oophorectomy in combination with royal jelly group, and oophorectomy and bee pollen group. The rats were sacrified within 12 weeks following surgery. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis before sacrification. Following sacrification, uterine weights were measured and tissue samples were taken to determine bone calcium and phosphate level with imaging through scanning electron microscope.

The uterine weights of the rats were found higher in Sham-operation group than the other groups. The difference among the groups was statistically significant (p=0.001). Total body BMD results were similar in all groups and there was not statistically significant difference (p=0.19). The lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD results were statistically significantly higher in the royal jelly and bee pollen groups, compared to only oophorectomy group (p=0.001). Bone tissue calcium and phosphate levels were higher in royal jelly and bee pollen groups.

Royal jelly and bee pollen decrease the bone loss due to osteoporosis in oophorectomized rat model. These results may contribute to the clinical practice...
Royal Jelly also contains a male hormone testosterone. Because of this feature it may also be effective in men’s osteoporosis that could be induced by a decrease of androgen. Considering all these features, RJ and BP may be very beneficial in the treatment of osteoporosis.