Friday, September 30, 2016

Antimicrobial Effects of Royal Jelly Confirmed

Deserving of its name, Royal Jelly is indeed very remarkable! Not only does it provide hormonal support in men and women, acts as a "brain booster" aiding mental capacities, it also has significant antimicrobial force, especially against Gram positive bacteria. 

Royal Jelly: An Ancient Remedy with Remarkable Antibacterial Properties
Microbiol Res. 2016 Nov

Royal Jelly (RJ), a honeybee hypopharyngeal gland secretion of young nurse and an exclusive nourishment for bee queen, has been used since ancient times for care and human health and it is still very important in traditional and folkloristic medicine, especially in Asia within the apitherapy.

Recently, RJ and its protein and lipid components have been subjected to several investigations on their antimicrobial activity due to extensive traditional uses and for a future application in medicine. Antimicrobial activities of crude Royal Jelly, Royalisin, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, Jelleines,

Major Royal Jelly Proteins against different bacteria have been reported. All these beehive products showed antimicrobial activities that lead their potential employment in several fields as natural additives. RJ and its derived compounds show a highest activity especially against Gram positive bacteria. The purpose of this Review is to summarize the results of antimicrobial studies of Royal Jelly following the timescale of the researches.

From the first scientific applications to the isolation of the single components in order to better understand its application in the past years and propose an employment in future studies as a natural antimicrobial agent.

Sunday, September 18, 2016

Honey is for Horses and Humans, Heals Wounds

The take-away from this study is that honey heals wounds, certainly raw honey (unheated & unfiltered) which contains Lactic Acid Bacteria. Many studies have demonstrated its healing capacity with regards to wounds but the researchers chose hard-to-heal wounds that took more than a year to heal! The results are very impressive, as antibiotic-resistant strains are becoming more commonplace in medical establishments.

Fighting Off Wound Pathogens in Horses with Honeybee Lactic Acid Bacteria
Current Microbiology October 2016

In the global perspective of antibiotic resistance, it is urgent to find potent topical antibiotics for the use in human and animal infection. Healing of equine wounds, particularly in the limbs, is difficult due to hydrostatic factors and exposure to environmental contaminants, which can lead to heavy bio-burden/biofilm formation and sometimes to infection. Therefore, antibiotics are often prescribed. Recent studies have shown that honeybee-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB), involved in honey production, and inhibit human wound pathogens.

The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects on the healing of hard-to-heal equine wounds after treatment with these LAB symbionts viable in a heather honey formulation. For this, we included ten horses with wound duration of >1 year, investigated the wound microbiota, and treated wounds with the novel honeybee LAB formulation. We identified the microbiota using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and DNA sequencing. In addition, the antimicrobial properties of the honeybee LAB formulation were tested against all wound isolates in vitro.

Our results indicate a diverse wound microbiota including fifty-three bacterial species that showed 90 % colonization by at least one species of Staphylococcus. Treatment with the formulation promoted wound healing in all cases already after the first application and the wounds were either completely healed (n = 3) in less than 20 days or healing was in progress. Furthermore, the honeybee LAB formulation inhibited all pathogens when tested in vitro.

Consequently, this new treatment option presents as a powerful candidate for the topical treatment of hard-to-heal wounds in horses. 

The rapid, painless healing of hard-to-heal equine wounds gives us reason to believe that the honeybee LAB formulation presents a new topical option in future wound healing. This new treatment may be a stepping-stone toward an alternative solution for treating other infected wounds in animals and humans and warrants further investigation.

Friday, August 12, 2016

Chrysin Flavonoid in Honey, Propolis Prevents Cell Damage

Just one of numerous flavonoids found in propolis and in smaller doses in honey, Chrysin has been found to protect cells from lab-induced ammonia intoxication. The protective effects of this flavonoid is a common trait with propolis, where we find it always protecting and healing various conditions as well as preventing damaging effects from chemicals, drugs, pesticides, etc.

Chrysin, a flavonoid attenuates histological changes of hyperammonemic rats: A dose dependent study
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 May 24;82:345-354

Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a major component of some traditional medicinal herbs present in honey, propolis and many plant extracts.

The study was aimed to illuminate the effect of chrysin in the pathogenesis of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) induced hyperammonemic rat model in a dose dependent manner. Rats were injected with NH4Cl (100mg/kg b.w.) by intraperitonially (i.p) thrice a week for 8 consecutive weeks for the induction of experimental hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemic rats were treated with chrysin by orally at a dose of 25, 50 & 100mg/kg b.w. respectively. 

Protective effect of chrysin against hyperammonemia was evaluated by performing biochemical estimations and morphopathological investigations of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of liver, brain and kidney tissues. Supplementation of chrysin reinstated the levels of blood ammonia, plasma urea, uric acid, total bilirubin, creatinine, brain glutamate, glutamine, nitric oxide (NO) and the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase, and liver marker enzymes.
On the other hand increased level of plasma urea was observed in chrysin treated rats as compared with hyperammonemic rats. Chrysin administration caused distortion of hepatic, brain and kidney architecture as shown by histological examination.

Chrysin at a dose (100mg/kg b.w.) showed an utmost decline in the level of all biochemical estimations. Both biochemical and morphological studies clearly revealed that chrysin protects against cell injury induced by ammonia intoxication in a dose-response manner with respect to endogenous antioxidants and hypoammonemic effects.

Wednesday, July 20, 2016

Chronic Rhinosinusitis Healed with Propolis

A really good study confirming the beneficial effects of propolis for chronic sinus ailments such as rhinosinusitis. Another interesting point is the consistent effect of its healing, protective properties on injuries, especially in mucous linings of the body.

Chronic Rhinosinusitis Healed with Propolis

Mechanical trauma to the nasal mucosa increases the risk of synechia formation, especially after chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal surgeries.

This study was carried to assess the effect of propolis administration in healing injured nasal mucosa in rats.

We randomly divided eighteen rats into three equal experimental groups: (1) non-treated group; (2) gum tragacanth (suspending agent for propolis) treated group; and (3) propolis treated group. The non-treated group received no treatment for 15 days. The second group received gum tragacanth administration (5 ml/kg, orally) once daily for 15 days. The third group received propolis suspension orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily for 15 days. At the beginning of this study, we induced unilateral mechanical nasal trauma on the right nasal mucosa of all rats in the three groups using a brushing technique. A pathologist stained tissue samples using hematoxylin and examined eosin by using a light microscope.
Photomicrographs of (1) non-treated, (2) gum (3) propolis

The severity of inflammation was milder with the absence of ulcerations in the propolis treated group compared with the non-treated and gum tragacanth groups. Goblet cell and ciliated cell loss was substantially lower in patients treated with propolis compared with groups without treatment and those treated with gum tragacanth.

Propolis decreased inflammation and enhanced healing of wounds of the nasal mucosa in rats.


Monday, June 13, 2016

Propolis Reduces Risk of Cataracts

This eye-opening study provides evidence of another benefit from the super antioxidant power of propolis. This is important news for those suffering from diabetes, as sugar cataracts are common. Previous studies have also determined propolis to be a safe antidiabetic alternative for diabetics to consume propolis even at 50-200mg/kg/BW. 

Propolis, a Constituent of Honey, Inhibits the Development of Sugar Cataracts and High-Glucose-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species in Rat Lenses
J Ophthalmol. 2016, April 19;2016:1917093

This study investigated the effects of oral propolis on the progression of galactose-induced sugar cataracts in rats and the in vitro effects of propolis on high-glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in cultured rat lens cells (RLECs).

Galactose-fed rats and RLECs cultured in high glucose (55 mM) medium were treated with propolis or vehicle control. Relative lens opacity was assessed by densitometry and changes in lens morphology by histochemical analysis. Intracellular ROS levels and cell viability were measured.

Oral administration of propolis significantly inhibited the onset and progression of cataract in 15% and 25% of galactose-fed rats, respectively. RLECs cultured with high glucose showed a significant increase in ROS expression with reduced cell viability. Treatment of these RLECs with 5 and 50 μg/mL propolis cultured significantly reduced ROS levels and increased cell viability, indicating that the antioxidant activity of propolis protected cells against ROS-induced damage.
figure 2

Propolis significantly inhibited the onset and progression of sugar cataract in rats and mitigated high-glucose-induced ROS production and cell death. These effects may be associated with the ability of propolis to inhibit hyperglycemia-evoked oxidative or osmotic stress-induced cellular insults.

Sunday, May 22, 2016

Allergy Relief Effective with Propolis

This study reaffirms once again, the holistic effects of propolis on mucous linings of the body, in particular the nasal passageway. Its anti-inflammatory properties also provide anti-allergic effects, ideal for those who suffer from respiratory ailments. Just another amazing product made by honeybees.

Effects of propolis in an experimental rat model of allergic rhinitis

The aim of this study was to determine the anti-allergic activity of propolis in an ovalbumin-induced rat model of allergic rhinitis.

Materials and methods
This prospective experimental study was conducted at Hakan Çetinsaya Clinical and Experimental Animal Research Center with 30 rats. After sensitization of all rats with 0.3 mg intraperitoneal ovalbumin plus 30 mg aluminum hydroxide for 14 days (first phase), rats were divided to five groups. In the second phase of the study 10 μL of ovalbumin was applied to each nostril for 21 days. Together with second phase, ketotifen (n:6), oral propolis (n:6), intranasal propolis (n:6) and intranasal mometasone furoate (n:6) were given to rats. A control group (n:4)(salin) and sham group (n:2) were planned. Symptoms were assessed on days 19, 22, 25, 30 and 35, resulting in 5 symptom scores: symptom scores 1–5. On day 35, nasal tissue was removed and histological examination was performed.

When rats that received systemic and intranasal propolis were compared to controls, ciliary loss, inflammation, increase in goblet cells, vascular proliferation, eosinophil count, chondrocytes and allergic rhinitis symptom score were found to be decreased (p < 0.05).

It was found that propolis had anti-allergic effects on allergic symptom scores and nasal histology.

Tuesday, March 29, 2016

Lungs Protected from Pulmonary Fibrosis with Propolis

Frequently found as an aid for pulmonary conditions and respiratory ailments, this study found propolis was better at protecting lungs from the deliberate scarring of bleomycin versus prednisolone and its known negative side effects.

Ultrastructural investigation of the protective effects of propolis on bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis
Biotech Histochem. 2016 Mar 9:1-9

We investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of propolis on bleomycin induced lung fibrosis and compared these effects to prednisolone treatment.

Forty rats were divided into four groups of ten: group 1 was treated with intratracheal infusion of 0.2 ml physiological saline followed by daily treatment with 0.5 ml physiological saline for 20 days. In the remaining groups (groups 2 - 4), 5 mg/kg bleomycin was given via the trachea. Rats in group 2 were given 0.5 ml physiological saline. Rats in group 3 were treated with 100 mg/kg propolis, and 10 mg/kg prednisolone was given to rats in group 4.

The treatments for all groups were continued for 20 days. On postoperative day
Histopathology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
PLoS Medicine
21, blood and lung samples were taken for biochemistry, histopathology and electron microscopy evaluation. We compared oxidative stress parameters and found lower malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase levels, and higher total sulfhydryl levels and catalase activities for the bleomycin + propolis group than for the bleomycin and bleomycin + prednisolone groups. The highest mean fibrosis score was detected in the bleomycin group.

Although the mean fibrosis scores of the bleomycin + propolis and bleomycin + prednisolone groups were not significantly different, electron microscopy revealed that propolis diminished bleomycin induced lung fibrosis more effectively than prednisolone. The effects of propolis might be due to its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Saturday, February 6, 2016

Propolis Effective in Humans for Antifungal Activity

This study is very exciting proving what's been known for many years - propolis is antifungal. Now, this in-vitro study confirms that patients infected with fungi had a significant reduction, which is very exciting news for those suffering from Lyme Disease and others with allergies associated with mold.

Antifungal Activity of Propolis Against Yeasts Isolated From Blood Culture: In Vitro Evaluation
J ClinLab Anal. 2016 Jan 20

Due to the failure of available antifungal agents in the treatment of candidemia and the toxic activities of these drugs, a lot of researches are being conducted to develop new nontoxic and effective antifungal agents for optimal control of fungal pathogens. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis against yeasts isolated from the blood cultures of intensive care unit patients.

Seventy-six strains were included in this study. The in vitro antifungal activity of propolis, fluconazole (FLU), and itraconazole (ITR) was investigated by the microdilution broth methods (CLSI guidelines M27-A3 for yeast). The propolis sample was collected from Kayseri, Turkey.

Of the 76 isolates, 33 were identified as Candida albicans while 37 were C. parapsilosis, three were C. tropicalis, and three were identified as C. glabrata. The geometric mean range for MIC (μg/ml) with regard to all isolates was 0.077 to 3 μg/ml for FLU and ITR, and 0.375 to 0.70 μg/ml for propolis. It was shown that propolis had significant antifungal activity against all Candida strains and the MIC range of propolis was determined as 0185 to 3 μg/ml.
By GrahamColm - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

This study demonstrated that propolis had significant antifungal activity against yeasts isolated from blood culture compared with FLU and ITR. The propolis MIC in azole-resistant strains such as C. glabrata was found lower than the FLU MIC.

Saturday, January 23, 2016

Live Longer Eating Bee Products and Keeping Bees

This amazing study confirms that keeping bees and consuming bee products can prolong life! DNA results show chromosomes lengthen rather than shorten over time for beekeepers and for those who consume bee products. So, if you haven't eaten honey, bee pollen, propolis or royal jelly today, then it's time to start. Live longer with Apitherapy! 

The relationship between telomere length and beekeeping among Malaysians
AGE, June 2015, 37:58

The belief that beekeepers live longer than anyone else is present since ages. However, no research has been done to explore the longevity of life in beekeepers. Here, we investigated the telomere length in 30 male beekeepers and 30 male non-beekeepers and associated them with the longevity of life using Southern analysis of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) generated by Hinf I/Rsa I digestion of human genomic DNA using TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay. 

Interestingly, we found that the telomere length of male beekeepers was significantly longer than those of male non-beekeepers with a p value of less than 0.05, suggesting that beekeepers may have longer life compared to non-beekeepers. We further found that the consumption of bee products for a long period and frequent consumption of bee products per day are associated with telomere length. An increase of year in consuming bee products is associated with a mean increase in telomere length of 0.258 kbp. In addition, an increase in frequency of eating bee products per day was also associated with a mean increase of 2.66 kbp in telomere length.

These results suggested that bee products might play some roles in telomere length maintenance.