Monday, April 30, 2012

Bee Propolis Extract Heals Wounds

An added advantage to using a propolis extract is that it seals the wound with a thin film of the resinous substance, creating a protective adhesive bandage. This is precisely why I carry a bottle with me, especially when doing physical labor and getting my share of cuts and scratches...

Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF®), an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds
Int J BiolSci 2012, April
The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions.

To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result.

The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition. 

Thermal injury is a major cause of morbidity and impaired quality of life in many areas of the world. Each year in The United States of America, more than 1.25 million people suffer burns. It has been estimated that 75% of deaths following burn injuries are related to infection…

In addition to the need for more convenient wound dressing and pharmaceuticals, it is also important to discover therapeutic agents that are more effective against microbial infections frequently related with burns...

Several studies have been published on the many different existing propolis extracts, both with regard to their biological activities and safety... 

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

Dual Effects of Honey Inhibit Bacterial Infections

This is a real significant finding and one that can't be reproduced in a lab. Honey bees collect nectar containing phenolic compounds found regionally, reaffirming the findings of antibacterial properties already discovered in numerous parts of the world. The dense concentration of sugars in honey providing QS inhibition is a bonus...

Honey's Ability to Counter Bacterial Infections Arises from Both Bactericidal Compounds and QS Inhibition
FrontMicrobiol, 2012 Apr 11

The ability of honey to kill bacterial pathogens in vitro and quickly clear even chronic or drug-resistant infections has been demonstrated by several studies. Most current research is focused on identifying the bactericidal compounds in honey, but the action of the compounds discovered is not sufficient to explain honey's activity.

By diluting honey to sub-inhibitory levels, we were able to study its impact on bacterial coordinated behavior, and discovered that honey inhibits bacterial quorum sensing (QS). Experiments to characterize and quantify honey's effect on the QS networks of Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed that low concentrations of honey inhibited the expression of MvfR, las, and rhl regulons, including the associated virulence factors.

This research also establishes that inhibition of QS is associated with honey's sugar content. Therefore, honey combats infections by two independent mechanisms acting in tandem: bactericidal components, which actively kill cells, and disruption of QS, which weakens bacterial coordination and virulence.

Friday, April 20, 2012

Honey: A Novel Antioxidant

Honey is a natural and essential ingredient for all humans, even diabetics. It's composition is rich in antioxidants, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and trace minerals. Buyer beware that the best source is a local or regional source, unheated and unfiltered. DO NOT buy grocery store-brand honey. With that said, taking 1-2 tablespoons of honey a day provides more for the body than for the sweet tooth... 

Honey: A Novel Antioxidant
Molecules, 2012, April 12  {full-text PDF available}

The global prevalence of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer and Alzheimer's disease is on the rise. These diseases, which constitute the major causes of death globally, are associated with oxidative stress.

Oxidative stress is defined as an “imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, potentially leading to damage”. Individuals with chronic diseases are more susceptible to oxidative stress and damage because they have elevated levels of oxidants and/or reduced antioxidants. This, therefore, necessitates supplementation with antioxidants so as to delay, prevent or remove oxidative damage.

Honey is a natural substance with many medicinal effects such as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, reproductive, antihypertensive and antioxidant effects.
This review presents findings that indicate honey may ameliorate oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), liver, pancreas, kidney, reproductive organs and plasma/serum. Besides, the review highlights data that demonstrate the synergistic antioxidant effect of honey and antidiabetic drugs in the pancreas, kidney and serum of diabetic rats.

These data suggest that honey, administered alone or in combination with conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant in the management of chronic diseases commonly associated with oxidative stress. In view of the fact that the majority of these data emanate from animal studies, there is an urgent need to investigate this antioxidant effect of honey in human subjects with chronic or degenerative diseases. 

Thursday, April 19, 2012

Propolis Reduces High Blood Pressure, Hypertension

Studies such as this continue to show the value in taking propolis prophylactically to control or regulate certain functions, like hypertension, immunomodulation or antimutogenic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory conditions WITHOUT any adverse side effects... 

Role of Propolis on Tyrosine Hydroxylase Activity and Blood Pressure in Nitric Oxide Synthase-Inhibited Hypertensive Rats

Reduction in the synthesis or bioavailability of nitric oxide plays a significant role in the development of hypertension. Propolis is a resinous product collected by honeybees from various plant sources. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamines.

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of propolis on blood pressure (BP), TH, and total RNA levels in the adrenal medulla, heart, and hypothalamus tissues in chronic nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-inhibited rats by Nw-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME).

Rats received NOS inhibitor (L-NAME) for 15 days to produce hypertension and propolis for the last 5 days.

TH activity and total RNA levels significantly increased in adrenal medulla, heart, and hypothalamus tissues in L-NAME-treated groups. TH activity and total RNA levels of L-NAME+propolis-treated rats reduced compared with L-NAME-treated groups. TH activity in propolis-treated rats was reduced to the control values. L-NAME led to a significant increase in BP compared with the control group. Propolis administration to L-NAME-treated rats reduced BP but this was not statistically significant compared to L-NAME-treated groups.

These results suggest that propolis decreases TH activity in NOS-inhibited hypertensive rats and thereby may modulate the synthesis of catecholamine and BP.

Wednesday, April 18, 2012

11th Annual Asian Apicultural Conference, Sept 28- Oct 2

This region of the world has an enormous amount of activity in the field of Apitherapy and Apiculture, with investments being made for studies to aid beekeepers and producers of healthy products for mankind...  

11th Asian Apicultural Association (AAA) Conference  
Primula Hotel, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu 

Asian Apicultural Association (AAA) assists in communication and the exchange of information between bee scientists and beekeepers in Asia. The Asian Apicultural Association chose Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia to be the next venue of the 11th Asian Association Apicultural Conference in Sept-Oct 2012. Appropriately, the eventing of the NBSE 2011 by the organizing committee is in preparation to the eventual hosting of the 11th AAA Conference in 2012.

11th Asian Apicultural Association (AAA) Conference

There is a need to coordinate the myriads of efforts on bee research, extension and diversity of beekeeping promotions and to make those efforts relevant to the business community and the people at large.

Special Topics of Interests

The conference committee has identified the following areas as special areas of focus for the scientific presentation and discussion.

1. Bee Biology, Behaviour, Diseases and Pests
2. Bee Pollination and Bee Plants
3. Bee By-products (honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly, etc.)
4. Beekeeping/Honeyhunting Equipment and Technologies
5. Apitherapy & Pharmaceuticals
6. Environment and Conservation
7. Others

Monday, April 16, 2012

Propolis Anti-Tumor Effect Used to Treat Neurofibromatosis

Propolis has many merits to aid human and animal species. Repeated studies show its ability to regulate cell functions and to block irregular cell functions, i.e. anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, immunostimulant capacities thanks to its rich flavonoid content...

Effective Neurofibromatosis Therapeutics Blocking the Oncogenic Kinase PAK1
Drug DiscovTher, 2011 Dec

Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a family of genetic diseases which are caused by dysfunction of either NF1 gene or NF2 gene. One in 3,000 people suffer from this tumor-carrying NF. NF1 gene product is a RAS GTPase activating protein (GAP) of 2,818 amino acids, which normally attenuates the GTP-dependent signal transducing activity of the G protein RAS.

Dysfunction of this GAP leads to the abnormal activation of RAS, and eventually an oncogenic kinase called PAK1 as well. NF2 gene product is ''Merlin'' which directly inactivates PAK1. Thus, dysfunction of Merlin causes the abnormal activation of PAK1. In other words, dysfunction of NF1 gene (causing type 1 NF) is basically the same as dysfunction of NF2 gene (causing type 2 NF). In fact the growth of both NF1 and NF2 tumors requires PAK1, and all PAK1 blockers, synthetic chemicals or natural products, suppress the growth of these NF tumor cells both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (mice).

However, until recently, no FDA-approved effective NF therapeutics is available on the market. Here a series of anti-PAK1 products shall be introduced, which would be potentially useful for the life-long treatment of NF patients in the future. These include the most potent HDAC (histone deacetylase) inhibitor FK228 (IC50: around 1 nM), that eventually blocks PAK1, the direct PAK1 inhibitor PF3758309 (IC50: around 10 nM), a CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester)-based propolis extract called ''Bio 30'' from NZ (New Zealand), and an ARC (artepillin C)-based green propolis extract (GPE) from Brazil.

Although the first two drugs are potent, none of them is available on the market as yet. The last two natural (bee-made) products are available on the market, and have been used for the therapy of NF and tuberous sclerosis (TSC) as well as many PAK1-dependent solid cancers such as breast and pancreatic cancers as well as glioma, which altogether represent more than 70% of all human cancers.

Since PAK1 is not essential for the normal cell growth, propolis extracts cause no side effects.

Thursday, April 12, 2012

Royal Jelly Increases Collagen Production, Anti-Aging Effect

Studies continue to validate that the only pure source of pantothenic acid, which we need for our bodies to produce collogen, is found in royal jelly. Whether you consume it or apply it on skin surfaces, it's good stuff...

Royal Jelly Increases Collagen Production in Rat Skin After Ovariectomy
J Med Food, 2012 Apr 2

Royal jelly (RJ) is a honeybee product that contains proteins, carbohydrates, fats, free amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. RJ has been reported to have antitumor, antibacterial, and wound-healing activities.

We previously reported that RJ enhanced the migration of human dermal fibroblasts and altered the levels of cholesterol and sphinganine in an in vitro wound-healing model in addition to regulating skin photoaging following exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation.

We established an animal model of skin aging in the context of estrogen deficiency and assessed the antiaging effects of RJ on skin.

To establish an in vivo model of skin aging, bilateral ovariectomies were performed in 12-week-old virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats. Induction of osteoporosis was confirmed through two-dimensional images of the trabecular bone in the left femoral necks using microcomputed tomography. The protective effects of RJ ovariectomy-induced skin aging were examined by determining the protein expression of type I procollagen and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1. The collagen content and epidermal thickness of skin tissue were measured by staining techniques. There was a significant difference in weight between sham-operated and ovariectomized groups. Food efficiency ratio did not differ significantly among the groups.

The level of procollagen type I protein was increased in the dorsal skin of ovariectomized rats fed with a dietary supplement containing 1% RJ extract, but the level of MMP-1 was not altered. In particular, the amount of collagen recovered was close to the normal level.

RJ may protect against skin aging by enhancing collagen production in rats with ovariectomy-induced estrogen deficiency.

Wednesday, April 11, 2012

Propolis Protects Kidneys from Cadmium Poisoning

The protective effects of Propolis are extremely important and extremely expansive. Whether you want to treat a physical ailment or to prevent something from getting started, Propolis is THE preventative ingredient to your daily intake. Protecting kidneys with a daily dose of propolis could go a long way to prevent future problems...

Protective Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Against Cadmium-Induced Renal Damage in Mice
J Toxicol Sci, 2012, Jan 21

Cadmium (Cd) is classified as an environmental pollutant and human carcinogen. Food is the major source of Cd exposure for the general population and cigarette smoking significantly adds to the body burden of Cd (Klaassen et al., 1999). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a biological active component of honeybee propolis extracts, has been used as a folk medicine with no harmful effects on normal cells.

Here we investigated the beneficial effect of CAPE on Cd-induced renal damage in mice.

Since renal damage induced by Cd (II) is related to oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PCO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) were evaluated. Moreover, the concentrations of Cd and zinc (Zn) in the kidney were analyzed. The intoxication of Cd (II) leads to the enhanced production of LPO and PCO, and the decrease of SOD activity and GSH level, probably due to the serious oxidative stress. However, the activities of CAT in the Cd (II)-induced group showed an elevated tendency, probably relating to an adaptive-response to the oxidative damage.

The co-administration of CAPE can attenuate the oxidative stress caused by the intoxication of Cd and restore the altered antioxidant defense system.

Based on our data, it is proposed that CAPE may involve in the protection of renal damage induced by Cd (II) owing to its antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory effect.

Friday, April 6, 2012

Local Honey More Effective than Manuka

It's great to see this kind of regional research into Apitherapy. There are unique qualities for all well-prepared honey and this finding is promising not only for developing countries but for advanced wealthy nations who are losing the battle against drug-resistant bacteria... 

Regional honey and Ca-MRSA (Community Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus)

MRSA infections are a well recognized problem in everyday medical practice. Many of these infections involve the skin and can form abscesses. Occasionally, MRSA infections can become invasive and involve the central nervous system, bones, lungs and other body organs. Currently these infections have become resistant to antibiotics that previously were effective. A major concern of the medical community is that resistance patterns might spread to antibiotics in current use such as Vancomycin and others.

Given the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, a research group in San Juan County New Mexico over the last 9 months has been exploring the role of honey in the treatment of these skin infections...

Honey has been used for wound healing for over a thousand years. In ancient Egypt and Greece it was used in various types of wound poultices... Most of the honey used in wound care (Manuka) comes from Australia and New Zealand and it originates from plants of the Leptospermum species.

In recent years, in vitro studies have been done on natural honey samples from Northern Ireland and various locations in Africa. These samples have been tested against Ca-MRSA isolates and other Staphylococcal specimens. Results were favorable demonstrating activity against these organisms...

Our in vitro testing, in which we impregnated sterile paper discs with five different honey varieties and the antibiotic Vancomycin, indicates that the varietal honey from Northwest New Mexico has favorable bactericidal activity against MRSA... the organism, in this case MRSA, is killed as it is exposed to the substance. Vancomycin is the prototypical intravenous antibiotic used in the hospital setting for more serious MRSA infections.

The bees and hives from which this Lot 1 and Lot 2 honey come have been managed in a certified naturally grown manner. That is, at no time during the year are the bees exposed to antibiotics, miticides, or chemical treatments of any kind...

The hives are located in the vicinity of Farmington, New Mexico. The principal honey flow is in late June through most of July. The honey is dark and apparently the nectar source is a wild drought-resistant weed that blooms every year at this time. There is very little exposure to cultivated fields such as clover.

Given the favorable bactericidal activity, we propose to further investigate the use of this honey in superficial skin abscesses that are found to be positive for MRSA. Patients will be recruited from area Urgent Care Clinics, Emergency Rooms, and physician offices. FDA application is currently in progress.

We think that further clinical investigation may provide another alternative treatment to conventional antibiotics for wounds that are infected with MRSA. There also may be other regional honey sources that could be tested for bactericidal activity against MRSA and other organisms. This approach may facilitate the reduced use of antibiotics and the inherent problem of resistant organisms.

Thursday, April 5, 2012

17th Annual American Apitherapy Conference, Oct 5-7, Portland Oregon

Known for its progressive involvement towards complementary and alternative healthcare, Portland Oregon will be hosting the 17th Annual American Apitherapy Conference, CMACC. Block your calendars for this very important conference you won't want to miss ...

The AMERICAN APITHERAPY SOCIETY, INC. announced the date and location of the 17th Annual CMACC (Charles Mraz Apitherapy Course and Conference) which will be held at the lengendary Governor Hotel, in Portland, Oregon. 

For more information, visit the American Apitherapy Society website, 
For hotel accomodations, 
visit their website,

Tuesday, April 3, 2012

Treatment of Lyme Disease with Bee Venom - Part II

Contrary to popular believe, a bee sting can actually do more good than harm. In fact, you're more likely to be struck by lightning than to have an anaphylatic reaction. But it's best to be prudent in the use of this toxic and potent venom attempting techniques such as this. For Part I of this article, see our blog posting of Sept 2011...

by Dietrich K. Klinghardt, M.D., Ph.D.

The pain relieving effect of bee venom in the treatment of clinical conditions similar to Lyme disease has been established a long time ago. Bee venom contains a number of potent peptides which are responsible for its healing effect ("Bee Venom Therapy for Chronic Pain," Dietrich Klinghardt, J. of Neurol and Orthop. Med and Surg., Vol. 11, Issue 9, Oct 1990, pp. 195-197). Recent research proved that one of the peptides in bee venom, melittin, has a strong inhibitory effect on the Lyme spirochete at very low doses ("Bee Stings as Lyme Inhibitor" by L. L. Lubke and C. F. Garon, J. Clin. Infect. Diseases, July 1997, 25 Suppl. 1, pp. 48-51). When the spirochete is inhibited it does not multiply and is vulnerable to the host's own immune system and to medication.

The dosage and frequency of treatment is determined by the patient's clinical response. Patients with Babesia or Mycoplasma infections require higher dosages then those with only B. burgdorferi infections.

Different bee venoms are on the market. I use the product VeneX, which comes in two different strengths: VeneX-10 and VeneX-20 (Table 1.). VeneX-20 is twice as concentrated as VeneX-10. VeneX-10 contains 1.0 mg of bee venom per 1.0 ml. A 0.1 ml of this solution delivers approximately the same amount of bee venom as a natural bee sting. The content of melittin in bee venom is dependent on where it is collected on the hive; the season and the pollen source the bees have access to at the time. Generally between one third and one half of the venom is melittin. Because of these variables the symptoms seen on administration of the venom can also vary. Bee venom is used for desensitization and is approved with the FDA for this purpose. There is an official monograph in the Homeopathic Pharmacopoea of the United States (HPUS), also recognized by the FDA.
The average maintenance dosage is 1.0 ml of VeneX-10 (or 0.5 ml of VeneX-20) mixed with 2.0 ml preservative free buffered procaine (available from ApotheCure in Dallas, TX) injected subcutaneously, given between one and three times weekly for 6-12 months. Even though much of the venom's effect is systemic, independent of the location where it is given, additional benefits are observed by injecting the venom in specific target areas.

These areas include:
All tender areas in the body, transition areas in the body, where soft tissue meets bone, the occipital nuchal line, above and below the zygoma, around the mastoid and jaw bone, the para-sternal area, the spinous processes of the vertebrae;
 - The kidney and adrenal area (often palpation reveals significantly tender areas);
 - The thymus (upper end of the sternum);
 - Painful joints (in the most tender areas);
 - Acupuncture points: (Bladder 23 for stimulating the adrenals, Gallbladder 1 to improve Lyme related problems with vision, Bladder 10 and Gallbladder 20 to stimulate melittin uptake into the brainstem (cranial nerve problems), Kidney 3 to improve Lyme related kidney dysfunction, etc.);
 - Neural therapy points: over the mastoid to improve Lyme related hearing and balance problems (for more information on Neural Therapy: call American Academy of Neural Therapy, Inc., at 206-749 9967);
 - Over the vagus nerve: to treat Lyme related dental and jaw problems (infected jaw bone, cavitations, Lyme related chronic pulpitis/sensitive teeth);
 - Frankenhauser points: to treat Lyme related bladder problems, pelvic/prostate/sexual dysfunction.

Distribute the 2.5-3.0 ml bee venom and procaine mix over 10 areas, using 0.25 ml to 0.3 ml per injection. The injection is given with a 30g needle. The needle is advanced just deep enough for the needle tip to barely reach beyond the sensory skin nerves. If it burns, the needle is not deep enough. If it never burns, most likely the injections are given too deep, where the medication will be quickly flushed away by the blood stream and lymphatics, without having the much-desired local effect. For a long needle this means that the needle is inserted into the skin less than half way.

These injections should be painless and well tolerated. There is a welling up, itchiness and aching after 10 minutes or so, which becomes less with an increasing number of treatments. The discomfort may increase during the first four or five treatments and then lessen over time. The initial response determines the treatment frequency. The first injection often triggers an increase in well being and a decrease of pain levels after a few hours; sometimes as late as 24 hours after the injection. The initial improvement may last between 12 hours and several days. This determines if the patient needs to be treated once a day or as little as once a week. If the improvement is less than desired a higher dose of bee venom may be needed.

I start with a low initial dose of 0.3 ml VeneX-10 or 0.15 ml VeneX-20 to ride out the often strong initial reactions. Over the next treatments I increase the dose, depending on the response, rather rapidly to the full treatment dose (Table 2. and Table 3.). It is wise to wait with injecting around the head until the patient no longer has strong local reactions (redness, swelling).

We have taught many patients to treat themselves with this procedure. It is far less painful than the use of live bees. However, treatment with live bees does not involve the use of technical supplies and is often the only practical alternative.

If live bees are used I recommend reading the textbook by Charles Mraz and the other literature supplied by Apitronic Services (Tel.: 604-271-9414). I also recommend using the Multi Treatment Mesh (MTM) or SoftSting devices by the same company that allows the bee to not loose its stinger, survive the procedure and return to its hive.

Everyone who uses bee venom on domestic animals or humans must have an Anakit, Epipen or other medically approved "bee-sting kit," within immediate reach. The Anakit contains a pre-drawn syringe with epinephrine, an oral antihistamine and instruction sheet. The Epipen contains epinephrine in a self-injecting form.

Should the patient experience a systemic reaction (usually within minutes) with airway restriction, I recommend to inject one third (1/3rd) of the epinephrine subcutaneously into the palmar (soft) side of the forearm (same depth as the bee venom injection). The wheezing will stop at the price of an agitated feeling in the patient. Now he/she should take the antihistamine (swallow the pill), which takes 15-20 minutes to work. During this time, a second injection with epinephrine may be needed. In 20 years of using bee venom, I never needed to use this procedure. However, I have always combined bee venom with procaine, which prevents most allergic reactions.

Clinical observations
Many cases of chronic fatigue, MS, ALS, memory loss, jaw problems, etc. are really undiagnosed Lyme disease. With the new Lyme laboratory test many of these cases can be appropriately diagnosed. The treatment outlined here is in my experience very gentle and yet the most successful approach...

Monday, April 2, 2012

Propolis Makes Good Root Canals, Better!

What more could you ask for in a single ingredient? Propolis has antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Naturally, this study found propolis to be alternative root canal medication. Of course, using a good propolis toothpaste everyday could avoid letting things get to this point...

Histopathological Analysis of Corticosteroid-Antibiotic Preparation and Propolis Paste Formulation as Intracanal Medication after Pulpectomy: An in vivo Study
J Appl Oral Sci, 2012 February

Intracanal medication in pulpectomy therapy is used between appointments with the objective of reducing pain and inflammatory processes in pulp and periapical tissues. Propolis has been known as a natural antibiotic and has been subject of medical and dental research due to its therapeutic properties such as antibiotic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.

The aim was to carry out an in vivo evaluation of the periapical tissue response to propolis paste when used as an intracanal medication in the teeth of dogs after pulpectomy.

72 dog's incisors were selected for the experiment. After biomechanical preparation the root canal was filled with a corticosteroid-antibiotic preparation, experimental propolis paste, non-medicament (negative control) or non-pulpectomy at all (positive control). The medications were left inside the root canal for 7, 14 or 28 days. At the end of the experimental period histological sections were prepared and all laboratories processes for Harris hematoxylin and eosin staining was proceeded followed by the analysis using an optical microscope. Sections were classified according to a score representing the inflammatory events observed: the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, polymorphonuclear eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells, macrophages and/or giant cells, fibrous condensation and abscesses.

There were statistically significant differences between the tissue reactions caused by the two substances being tested, after different experimental periods, with the periapical tissue that was in contact with propolis paste exhibiting fewer inflammatory reactions in comparison to corticosteroid-antibiotic preparation.

The low tissue responses from propolis paste suggest that this material could be considered as an option for root canal medication after pulpectomy... Furthermore, the propolis paste was more effective at controlling the inflammatory response over the 28-day experimental period.